- looptijd: 2013 - 2017
- locatie: Enschede, Overrijsel
- functie: Energiebewustzijn verhogen, meer flex
Balance in Energy efficiency becomes crucial for rational consumption of the available resources and reduction of the CO2 production. But the reduction of energy consumption as the only remedy is only a partial solution.
Similar, applying more environment-neutral or renewable energy sources without smart energy management systems may even cause failures in the energy grid or at least cause the energy to be wasted. However a successful application of such solutions faces problems due to human factors.
The problem space is multidimensional, but can be abstracted as a combination of social, economic and technical aspects. The e-balance project will investigate their interdependencies and propose a solution that satisfies the defined requirements.
Introducing intelligent solutions that combine the control of energy production and consumption helps to achieve the best efficiency.
The social, economic and technical aspects will be investigated in order to achieve a mature and holistic solution. The social aspects include:
- Socio-technical development (user requirements and concerns)
- Different levels of user participation (involvement) and means to increase it
- Barriers to conduct an effective solution
From the economic perspective the following aspects will be considered:
- Development of new business opportunities
- Economic means to increase involvement
- Legislation reinforcements and corrective measures,
And the technical solution will provide the following features respecting the socio-economic aspects:
- Support for all kinds of energy source and storage
- Scalable, fine grained and decentralized energy balancing and demand prediction
- Security and privacy mechanisms
- Flexible accounting
- Increased reliability.
The technical solution will be based on available state of the art results and will combine them according to the socio-economical requirements with necessary adaptation.
The proposed energy management platform will be evaluated in realistic scenarios using real world set-ups in
In order to stimulate the exploitation of the results E-Balance will provide a guide book and tools for parties interested in using our solution, to help them to estimate the improvements they can achieve for a given deployment as well as the costs they can expect.
Finance: This project has been financed by TKi
Subsidie: EU - FP7 Nr 609132
Sensor Technology in e-balance
Fault detection and location in the Low Voltage (LV) distribution grid is still inefficient due to the lack of LV grid monitoring. Presently, LV fault detection relies on customer calls informing the Distribution System Operator about outages, and the faults are located based on inspections made by maintenance crews. LV grid monitoring will enable deploying fault detection and location features, by sending alarm notifications once a fault is impending or detected through the correlation of real-time data from the wireless sensors deployed along the LV feeder.
A Public Light (PL) monitoring suffers from the same fault vulnerability of conventional LV grid segments. PL fault detection also relies on complaints from clients or on visual inspections made by maintenance crews. PL monitoring will also enable deploying fault detection and location features.
In the e-balance project, the monitoring of the LV grid is done by sensors, which communicate via an RF-mesh wireless sensor network. The sensors are deployed in strategic points of the LV grid, like secondary substations and along their respective feeders. The sensor measurements, e.g., current, voltage and power, are communicated to a secondary substation controller, which runs the appropriate algorithms to detect LV grid faults and localize them. The complete system will be demonstrated in the EDP Distribuição LV grid in the region of Batalha in Portugal. The architecture of a sensor node is shown in this figure.
As seen in the figure, the main modules of the sensor node are:
- LV Sensing Module, which measures the voltage, current, active and reactive power of the 3 phases (L1, L2, L3) of the LV feeder;
- PL Sensing Module, which measures the voltage, current, active and reactive power of the Public Light feeder;
- Voltage/Current Fault Detector module, which detects the voltage and current faults of the LV feeder and PL feeder;
- Radio Frequency (RF) Mesh Module, which contains the control processor with very low consumption, the radio module and runs the operating system;
- AC/DC power module.
Low power consumption and energy storage mechanisms are needed in these components as they are required to transmit alarms to the secondary substation controller up to 20 seconds after they lose power. The use of batteries is not recommended due to its reduced live and for ecological reasons, supercapacitors are used instead.
The RF Mesh modules obey to the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, which specifies operation in the 868 MHz and 2.4 GHz frequency bands in Europe. The frequency of 868 MHz ISM band is chosen due to its lower attenuation in open space, when compared with the 2.4 GHz ISM band.
An 8 bit micro-controller is chosen due to its very low consumption, while being able to run the Contiki operating system. The decision to use Contiki in the RF Mesh Modules is based on the following reasons:
- Strict power requirements.
- Last gasp communication requires ultra-low power consumption from the micro-controller;
- Already offers 6LowPAN and RPL.
This figure shows the top view of a typical LV sensor node.
The e-balance Project aims at integrating the energy customers into the future smart-grids in order to address future environmental problems with holistic technical solutions based on ICT, new business models and citizens’ behavior under real world conditions.
Integration of distributed energy resources
The e-balance system provides the means to match both time varying local renewable production and consumption, what allows a better utilization of the electricity grid, while improving the distribution efficiency.
Dynamic distribution grids show a major DER penetration and resilience is of utmost importance because reliability and flexibility are goals for deploying future proof smart grids.
Fractal-like system, fractal-like ICT solutions
The e-balance system matches in topology and hierarchy the fractal-like electricity grids. Management units and sensors are deployed on each hierarchy level, facilitating local grid automation, increasing grid resilience and efficiency.
In this way, if some control decision cannot be satisfied for certain level, it is forwarded to the higher one, what simplifies the development of control technologies.
Social analysis: smart-grids for people
The final challenge: security and privacy
Are you worried about your privacy? e-balance investigates the best technologies to protect your privacy and anonymize your information before it goes out your home.
The goal of the e-balance approach is to provide equal data protection for all the involved stakeholders. All of them shall be assured that their data and devices are safe, of course as long as the stakeholders behave along the rules. Misbehavior shall be detected and logged. It is also important for the system to be transparent to allow auditing its security and privacy protecting procedures.
More efficient system, better environment
Energy efficiency becomes crucial for rational consumption of the available resources and reduction of the CO2 production. But the reduction of energy consumption as the only remedy is only a partial solution.
Similarly, applying more environment-neutral or renewable energy sources without smart management systems may even cause failures in the energy grid or at least cause the energy to be wasted. Introducing intelligent solutions that combine the control of energy production and consumption helps to achieve the best efficiency.
New paradigm, new business model
The active integration of customers into the new system requires new business models that satisfy all the stakeholders.
Under e-balance approach, tariffs and price mechanisms play one of the most important roles, since it is indeed the only way to “balance” the energy demand and supply at the same time. People will be able to specify their preferences and interact with a new energy market where everyone participates as a “small energy plants”. The comparison with other neighbors and a better understanding of the electric system will permit customers to reduce their electric bills time to time, what will facilitate the people’s acceptance of these new concepts.