- looptijd: 2011 - 2015
- locatie: Delft, Zuid-Holland
- functie: Mobiliteit en Transport
Het Green eMotion project, periode 2011 – 2015, ontwikkelde en onderzocht een gebruiksvriendelijk framework voor Green Electro Mobility in Europa.
- Thema: EV: Policy
- Onderwerp: Connecting ten ongoing regional and national electromobility initiatives leveraging on the results and comparing the different technology approaches to ensure the best solutions prevail for the EU single market.
eMotion definieerde en demonstreerde een Europees kader dat alle stakeholders met elkaar verbind in een naadloos en kostenefficiënte elektromobiliteit ecosysteem.
Green eMotion stappenplan
Gestandaardiseerde interfaces voor het aansluiten van laders, zijn van cruciaal belang. Green eMotion stelt een ‘stappenplan op weg naar interoperabiliteit’ voor, gericht op het vaststellen van normen en in het bijzonder over communicatie-interfaces. Het stappenplan beschouwt 5 stappen (2015-2025) waarin de 13 belangrijkste doelstellingen opgenomen zijn.
Netverzwaring kosten kunnen worden gereduceerd door zogenaamde smart opladen maatregelen.
- Congestie in low voltage lijnen uit een veelheid van het opladen van elektrische auto’s zich kunnen voor gaan doen in de toekomst
- Thuis opladen en bij de werkgever opladen doen automobilisten vaak op hetzelfde tijdstip. Dit zal dus een hoge piekvraag veroorzaken
- Pieken kunnen ondervangen worden met intelligente heffingen tijdens het laadproces. Bijvoorbeeld met tijdsafhankelijke stroom tarieven, kunnen gebruikers worden gemotiveerd om slimmer en kostenbewuster op te laden.
Verscheidene Elektrisch Vervoer pilots in Europese steden deden hieraan mee, met als einddoel een uniform geïntegreerd systeem, met dezelfde interfaces.
Main objectives of Green eMotion:
- Setting a framework for pan-European interoperable electromobility which is commonly accepted, user-friendly and scalable.
- Integrate smart grid developments, innovative ICT solutions and different types of EUs various urban mobility concepts.
- Enable a European wide market place for electromobility to allow for roaming.
- Providing a unique knowledge base.
Practical research was conducted in different demo regions all over Europe with the aim of developing and demonstrating a commonly accepted and user-friendly framework that combines
- interoperable and scalable technical solutions
- with a sustainable business platform
For the implementation of this framework, Green eMotion took into account smart grid developments, innovative ICT solutions, different types of EVs, as well as urban mobility concepts.
The project developed prototypes to connect the islands of existing at the time of the project start.
- An overarching ICT architecture was defined
- Standards, especially for ICT interfaces, were set.
- New business models for public charging infrastructure were analyzed
- Ways were shown for its optimized integration into the grid.
Het betreft hier een EU FP7 subsidieproject.
The Green eMotion consortium started with 43 and ended with 42 partners from industry, the energy sector, electric vehicle manufacturers, and municipalities as well as universities and research institutions. They have joined forces to explore the basic conditions that need to be fulfilled for Europe-wide electromobility.
- The project has defined and demonstrated a European framework that connects all stakeholders for a seamless and cost-efficient electromobility ecosystem.
- User Acceptance needs to be increased by:
- demonstration of interoperability and convenient usage of EVs to the customer
- Incentives for reduction of the EV price like direct purchase incentives or sales tax reduction are also effective measures
- Prerequisite for consumer acceptance is the availability of sufficient charging infrastructure
- Installation of home chargers should be supported, but also public charging infrastructure is needed whereas the locations have to be thoroughly evaluated according to target groups needs and economical requirements.
- Environmental impact of EVs is mixed.
- The low noise level and the local zero emission are good arguments for buying an EV
- EVs were found to be more environmentally friendly than ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) vehicles for a majority of impact categories, in particular those with global effects like global warming potential but not in all categories.
- EVs in fleets show a positive business case already today. The assessed scenarios include
- office car pools
- taxi services
- urban bus routes
- urban deliveries
- The different types of electric transport are compared with alternative ICE technologies.
- Both, private customers and fleet operators will require a coherent mobility plan of the cities that considers the mobility needs of all stakeholders.
Main recommendations for policy makers were identified.
- The open access to all existing public charging infrastructure is a mandatory prerequisite for the mass market roll-out of electromobility.
- Therefore we need an ICT system that allows roaming between all partners, meaning that EV drivers can use public charging infrastructure independent from the owner or operator.
- The goal is a situation comparable with that in the mobile phone market where also the customer can use his mobile phone everywhere.
- A basic step in that direction was the definition of actors and roles, the business processes and a suitable ICT architecture.
As an example and to show the functionality of the ICT architecture Green eMotion implemented the Green eMotion Marketplace (as a non-commercial pilot system).
- Standardized interfaces e.g. for connecting chargers, are crucial.
- Green eMotion is proposing a “Roadmap towards interoperability” focused on missing standards and, in particular, on communication interfaces.
- The Roadmap considers 5 time steps (from 2015 to 2025) and 13 main targets distributed among them.
- Grid reinforcement costs can be reduced by so called smart charging measures.
- Congestion in low voltage lines from a multitude of charging EVs might occur in the nearer future.
- Especially for home charging and employer charging most customers will start charging in the same time frame and therefore cause a high peak demand.
- Smart charging controls the charging process in a way that such a peak is avoided. E.g. with time dependent power tariffs, users can be motivated to accept smart charging.
- EVs improve integration of renewable energy sources (RES) into the electricity grid.
- With a high number of EVs connected to the grid, Smart EV management approaches might become an important feature to prevent curtailment of RES or the need to activate reserve power production.
- Both will contribute to relevant CO2 savings.
The Green eMotion analysis of the business models for public charging infrastructure revealed that public charging is a difficult business case today.
- The results lead to the conclusion that the business case of public charging as standalone business can only be profitable within such mid-term business scenarios in case of highly frequented charging stations.
- Hence, the charging stations need to be located at points of interest, so that people are willing to pay for the usage and usage time is short enough to allow for several charging events per day.
- An option to improve the business case of public charging is the combination of different businesses. Examples are
- parking in a parking lot
- use charging to attract people for other services like shopping, cinema, eat & drink etc.
Several, company specific.
TNO developed a eMobility System Simulator, where different actors are active.